- Original Article -
ESOPHAGEAL CANDIDIASIS AS COMPLICATION OF INHALED STEROID THERAPYHiroshi Shuto1)2)3), Makoto Nagata1), Yoshinori Terashi1), Michiya Yamaguchi1), Takao Takizawa1), Chizuru Shuto2), Kensuke Watanabe2), Kaoru Tosaka2), Masahiko Okano2) and Hisashi Noguchi4)
1)The Saitama Conference on Asthma Therapy
2)Saitama East Area Study Group of Allergology
3)Ekibiru Clinic Sengendai Kenshinkai
4)Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara General Hospital
Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in two bronchial asthma patients using inhaled corticosteroid who complained of odynophagia. The endoscopic finding was high grade with white moss (Grade III) in both patients. Esophageal candidiasis is often recognized in bronchial asthmatic patients receiving long-term fluticasone propionate (FP) dry powder (Diskhaler®) inhalation. We therefore examined the complicated context of esophageal candidiasis in patients with long-term FP inhalation. Out of 20 bronchial asthmatic patients who had been using FP inhalation long-term, seven showed signs of esophageal candidiasis. Three patients had mild grade (Grade I), one middle grade (Grade II) and three high grade (Grade III) candidiasis, with a frequency of 35%. This rate is higher than the usual spontaneous occurrence rate of esophageal candidiasis, and it is suggested that inhalation of corticosteroid medication can penetrate into the esophagus after deep inhalation. We tested this hypothesis in two studies.
1) To measure the esophageal concentration of FP, four healthy adults inhaled 200 μg FP once. Right after inhalation, FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 3.3 μg. On another day, 30 minutes after the same dose of inhaled FP, one FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 0.67 μg (immediately laydown), and another was 0.11 μg (remained standing). This indicates that even though FP dissipates quickly, it remains in the esophagus 30 minutes after inhalation.
2) We observed the process in one patient with high grade (Grade III) esophageal candidiasis. The time of inhalation was changed from just after getting up and just before going to bed to before breakfast and before dinner. Under this regimen, the signs of esophageal candidiasis improved from high to middle grade.
Conclusion: If asthmatic patients do not go to sleep immediately after FP inhalation, the remaining FP in the esophagus decreases rapidly, thereby decreasing the risk of esophageal candidiasis. In addition, by changing the FP inhalation times to before breakfast and dinner, the remaining FP in the esophagus is washed away and does not remain in the esophagus. Therefore, this study, which avoided inhalation before going to bed, provides useful information for the prevention and improvement of esophageal candidiasis.
key words: bronchial asthma, esophageal candidiasis, fluticasone propionate (FP)
Received: December 6, 2002
Jpn. J. Allergol., 52 (11): 1053-1064, 2003
Copyright © JAPANESE SOCIETY OF ALLERGOLOGY All rights reserved.